Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP)
The VB-MAPP is a criterion-referenced assessment tool, curriculum guide, and skills tracking system that is designed for children who have developmental delays. The VB-MAPP was developed by Mark L. Sundberg, Ph.D., BCBA in 2008 based on B.F. Skinner’s (1957) analysis of verbal behavior.
The assessment is comprised of two sections, the Milestones Assessment and the Barriers Assessment, that are designed to provide a baseline level of performance across a variety of skill areas. The Milestones Assessment evaluates 170 measurable milestones that are balanced across 16 skill areas and 3 developmental levels (level 1: 0-18 months, level 2: 18-30 months, level 3: 30-48 months). The milestones evaluated include manding (requesting), tacting (labeling), listener responding, visual perceptual skills and matching-to-sample, independent play, social behavior and social play, motor imitation, echoics (imitation), spontaneous vocal behavior, listener responding by function, feature, and class, intraverbal, classroom routines and group skills, linguistic structure, reading, writing, math.
The Barriers Assessment evaluates 24 learning and language acquisition barriers impeding a child’s progress. The barriers evaluated include: problem behaviors, instructional control, defective mand (request), defective tact (label), defective echoic (imitation), defective motor imitation, defective visual perceptual skills and matching-to-sample, defective listener skills, defective social skills, prompt dependence, scrolling, defective scanning, defective conditional discrimination, failure to generalize, weak motivators, response requirement weakening motivation, reinforcer dependence, self-stimulation, defective articulation, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, hyperactive behaviors, failure to make eye contact, sensory defensiveness.
Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills-Revised (ABLLS-R)
The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS) is an assessment tool, curriculum guide, and skills-tracking system used to help guide the instruction of language and critical learner skills for children with developmental disabilities. The ABLLS was developed by James W. Partington, Ph.D., BCBA-D and Mark L. Sundberg, Ph.D, BCBA-D in 1998. In 2006, Dr. Partington updated (revised) the ABLLS to incorporate a more specific sequence in the developmental order of items within the various skill areas, creating the ABLLS-R.
The ABLLS-R provides a comprehensive review of 544 skills from 25 skill areas including language, social interaction, self-help, academic, and motor skills. Most typically developing children acquire the evaluated skills by age five. The assessment results allow parents and professionals to identify barriers that have prevented a child from acquiring new skills and to develop a comprehensive, individualized, language-based curriculum.